How To Cite a Tweet

I found this on another site (for the life  of  me i cant find the link, ironic i know) and thought in this day and age it would  be useful After all how many of us, including  psychologists, are using social media.

How do I cite a tweet?

Begin the entry in the works-cited list with the author’s real name and, in parentheses, user name, if both are known and they differ. If only the user name is known, give it alone.

Next provide the entire text of the tweet in quotation marks, without changing the capitalization. Conclude the entry with the date and time of the message and the medium of publication (Tweet). For example:

Athar, Sohaib (ReallyVirtual). “Helicopter hovering above Abbottabad at 1AM (is a rare event).” 1 May 2011, 3:58 p.m. Tweet.

The date and time of a message on Twitter reflect the reader’s time zone. Readers in different time zones see different times and, possibly, dates on the same tweet. The date and time that were in effect for the writer of the tweet when it was transmitted are normally not known. Thus, the date and time displayed on Twitter are only approximate guides to the timing of a tweet. However, they allow a researcher to precisely compare the timing of tweets as long as the tweets are all read in a single time zone.

In the main text of the paper, a tweet is cited in its entirety (6.4.1):

Sohaib Athar noted that the presence of a helicopter at that hour was “a rare event.”


The presence of a helicopter at that hour was “a rare event” (Athar).


10 Of The Best Psychology TED Talks

Here are some of the best talks about psychology from some of the giants of this and related fields.

1. Philip Zimbardo: The psychology of evil

This has to be one of the best Ted talks I have ever come across to do with psychology.

“Philip Zimbardo knows how easy it is for nice people to turn bad. In this talk, he shares insights and graphic unseen photos from the Abu Ghraib trials. Then he talks about the flip side: how easy it is to be a hero, and how we can rise to the challenge.”

2. Alison Gopnik: What do babies think?

“Alison Gopnik takes us into the fascinating minds of babies and children, and shows us how much we understand before we even realize we do.”

3. Rebecca Saxe: How we read each other’s minds

“Sensing the motives and feelings of others is a natural talent for humans. But how do we do it? Here, Rebecca Saxe shares fascinating lab work that uncovers how the brain thinks about other peoples’ thoughts — and judges their actions.”

4. Elyn Saks: A tale of mental illness — from the inside

“Is it okay if I totally trash your office?” It’s a question Elyn Saks once asked her doctor, and it wasn’t a joke. A legal scholar, in 2007 Saks came forward with her own story of schizophrenia, controlled by drugs and therapy but ever-present. In this powerful talk, she asks us to see people with mental illness clearly, honestly and compassionately.

5. VS Ramachandran: 3 clues to understanding your brain

“Vilayanur Ramachandran tells us what brain damage can reveal about the connection between celebral tissue and the mind, using three startling delusions as examples.”

6. Dan Dennett: Dangerous memes

Starting with the simple tale of an ant, philosopher Dan Dennett unleashes a devastating salvo of ideas, making a powerful case for the existence of memes — concepts that are literally alive.

7. Scott Fraser: Why eyewitnesses get it wrong

Scott Fraser studies how humans remember crimes — and bear witness to them. In this powerful talk, which focuses on a deadly shooting at sunset, he suggests that even close-up eyewitnesses to a crime can create “memories” they could not have seen. Why? Because the brain abhors a vacuum. Editor’s note: In the original version of this talk, Scott Fraser misspoke about available footage of Two World Trade Center (Tower 2). The misstatement has been edited out for clarity.

8. Steven Pinker: The surprising decline in violence

Steven Pinker charts the decline of violence from Biblical times to the present, and argues that, though it may seem illogical and even obscene, given Iraq and Darfur, we are living in the most peaceful time in our species’ existence.

9. Kevin Briggs: The bridge between suicide and life

If there is one talk out of all these that you do watch, make it this one.

For many years Sergeant Kevin Briggs had a dark, unusual, at times strangely rewarding job: He patrolled the southern end of San Francisco’s Golden Gate Bridge, a popular site for suicide attempts. In a sobering, deeply personal talk Briggs shares stories from those he’s spoken — and listened — to standing on the edge of life. He gives a powerful piece of advice to those with loved ones who might be contemplating suicide.

10. Ken Robinson: How schools kill creativity

One of the most watched TED talks and brings a really funny view onto a serious subject.

Sir Ken Robinson makes an entertaining and profoundly moving case for creating an education system that nurtures (rather than undermines) creativity.

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Dear Mr Gove by Jess Green

Everyone needs to see this.

Education is the most important gift we can give to a person, without education how can people improve both their lives and that of the country. To do that we need passionate, enthusiastic teachers with a realistic and up to date curriculum, not teachers who are overworked and underpaid.

Remember lets make our votes count in 2015
twitter: @greenellenjess

Thank you to Tracey on FB for the link 🙂

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Referencing – For Open University Students


Referencing is the bane of most student’s life… It is probably up there with applying for student finance for fun level. Every university, even different departments, have a slightly different way of doing it. The Open University has an excellent guide on their site, which goes into great detail on how to reference correctly.


There are many different reasons why you need to reference your work, mainly these are:

  •          to demonstrate that you have undertaken research for your academic work
  •          to avoid accusations of plagiarism
  •          to acknowledge the work of other authors, which can be found in books, journal articles, websites etc.

All ideas taken from the work of another author (whether directly quoted or put into your own words) need to be identified within your academic work. The idea being is that it shows the reader exactly where you got the information.

In-text citations

In-text citations enable you to indicate in your work where you have used ideas or material from other sources. Here are some examples using the OU Harvard style. If, for example, your source were a book written by Hollway and published in 1999, your in-text references would follow one of these three formats:

•          Further work (Hollway, 2009) supports this claim.

•          Further work by Hollway (2009) supports this claim.

•          ‘This theory is supported by recent work’ (Hollway, 2009, p. 25).

If the reference covers more than one page, it would be: (Hollway, 2009, pp.34-47).

Listing full references at the end of your work

Everything that you have cited within your work should be listed alphabetically at the end of your essay on a separate page. You need to identify the source type (e.g. book, journal article) and use the correct referencing format.

A book reference has several different parts all intended to give the reader as much information as possible:

AUTHOR: By surname followed by the initial of the first letter. Quite often, this will be The Open University.

YEAR: The year that this edition of the book published, not when it was written. It is bracketed.

TITLE: This will either be the title of the book itself or the chapter; it may also be the module title. Titles of books should be italicised and chapters should be in inverted commas.



Example 1. A standard reference might be

Bromley, S., Clarke, J., Hinchliffe, S. and Taylor, S. (eds) Exploring Social Lives, Milton Keynes, The Open University.

Alternatively, if you are referencing a chapter it will look like this:

Hollway, W. (2009) ‘Identity Change and Identification’, in Bromley, S., Clarke, J., Hinchliffe, S. and Taylor, S. (eds) Exploring Social Lives, Milton Keynes, The Open University.

It is important to remember that you only ever reference what you have read, so if you use information from Freud that you read in the course book, then you reference the course book. This is known as ‘secondary referencing’ and should make it clear in your work that you have not read the original and are referencing the secondary source, for example:

In-text citation: Freud, cited in Hollway (2009), loves his mum.

Meanwhile in the reference list, you would provide details for the source you read it in like a normal reference.


Referencing Apps and Programs

While I do not generally use them myself, although I am about to try a new app called ReferenceMe, which also has a web site, I appreciate some people may find them useful.


Here is a list of some of the most popular web based programs:

Neil’s Toolbox

Cite This For Me

Harvard Generator

Cite 2 Write


Referencing in word

Click here and download the “” file.

Copy the contents of the zip file into your Microsoft Word bibliography style directory. This directory can be found in different places depending on your machine and the software it is running. Two typical places for Windows are:

%programfiles%\Microsoft Office\Office14\Bibliography\Style

<user directory>\AppData\Roaming\Microsoft\Bibliography\Style

Microsoft Reference function is accessible from the reference tab.


Word comes with a list of default referencing style. Choose the referencing style that you want to use, in our case it will be the Harvard referencing system.


Click on the ‘Insert Citation’ button to open the add citation window.


Word 2010 & 2013 allow us to add different source type such as ‘Journal Article’ for our essay.


Click on the insert citation button to view a list of your citation and click any of them to create an inline citation in your essay.


You can create a bibliography page by clicking on the ‘Bibliography’ button.


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World Book Day 2014

World Book Day Logo
World Book Day


Yay!!! So how awesome is this? We have a whole day dedicated to book and reading. Those beautiful bundles of paper, or software codes if you use an eReader, that can contain anything from a simple recipe for soup to the understanding of the universe. Nothing excites me more then opening up a novel and getting lost in the authors imaginary world that comes alive from the page.

If you cant tell i love book, they are one of the most important assets any civilised society has. From the local library down the road to the colossus that once resided in Alexandria, they give the ability to access knowledge to the masses, an even playing field when it comes to learning. In these days of austerity and spending cuts, quite a lot of local libraries seem to be under threat and facing closure. Days like today show the people in charge how much the world of books mean to us. There are many grass root campaigns out there to help save the libraries that are under threat, here are a few:

The Library Campaign

Save Our Libraries

Voices for the Libraries

So i thought i would share some pictures of the books that live in my house. This is only about 1/3 of the book we have, with a large proportion being owned by my toddler. From when he was born we have always read to him, trying to impart the importance of reading. He loves everything from Beatrix Potter to Dora the Explora, although his all time favourites are about space. And as he wants to grow up to be a scientist and a teacher then i think we are succeeding.

Here are some of our books, please ignore the 70’s wallpaper in the cupboard, i cant bring myself to get rid of it:

My psychology and criminology cupboard with bad 70's wallpaper included
My psychology and criminology cupboard with bad 70’s wallpaper included
Book shelf in our living room. A mixture from classics to ghost stories.
Book shelf in our living room. A mixture from classics to ghost stories.

I would love to see pics of your shelves or even pics of you guys celebrating World Book Day!



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The Beginning of Something Beautiful


This week my 3 year old started nursery, so needless to say it has been a bit of an emotional time for both me and his mother. His school is amazing with both indoor and outdoor activity areas and caring staff.

The one thing i have come to realise is that there is nothing more beautiful than taking your child to school. Most people that i see on the school run seem to treat it like a chore, which could not be further from the truth. To see the excitement build as they get closer, an excitement for learning and social interaction, an excitement that is infectious. Listening to them on the way home is also an amazing thing. While they are telling you what they did and who they played with, you can’t help but feel the fun they experienced.

My son is at the begging of a long but amazing journey into the world of education. He will experience massive highs and terrible lows, but overall he will grow as a person and as a student. I must admit i am a closet geek and secretly harbour ideas of him becoming an astrophysicist or a microbiologist and making a life changing discovery.

The thought of this makes me so excited about my journey with the Open University, which is just beginning. Education is such a special thing that we, all too often, take for granted in the west. The majority of the world could not even dream about the opportunities we have here and that, along with my son, is one of the reasons i am not going to make the same mistakes i did when i was in school.


Classical Conditioning within Psychology – “Attack of the Quack”

Sister tests Pavlovian conditioning on little brother using duck sound and Nerf gun!

This video was shared to my twitter feed last night, and while it might not pass an ethical committee, it did make me laugh.

What do you think?